Diretrizes e Referências Bibliográficas em

Medicina da Obesidade


AACE guidelines: Timothy Garvey, MD, FACE; Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU; Elise M. Brett, MD, FACE, CNSC, ECNU; Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE; Daniel L. Hurley, MD, FACE; Ania M. Jastreboff, MD, PhD; Karl Nadolsky, DO; Rachel Pessah-Pollack, MD; Raymond Plodkowski, MD; and Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines


Adult OMA Obesity guidelines:

Obesity Algorithm®

Bays HE, McCarthy W, Christensen S, Tondt J, Karjoo S, Davisson L, Ng J, Golden A, Burridge K, Conroy R, Wells S, Umashanker D, Afreen S, DeJesus R, Salter D, Shah N, Richardson L. Obesity Algorithm eBook, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. www.obesityalgorithm.org. 2020. https://obesitymedicine.org/obesity-algorithm/

Exercise – ACSM guidelines


Obesity Management – ACC/AHA/TOS guidelines:Michael D. Jensen, Donna H. Ryan, Caroline M. Apovian, Jamy D. Ard, Anthony G. Comuzzie, Karen A. Donato, Frank B. Hu, Van S. Hubbard, John M. Jakicic, Robert F. Kushner, Catherine M. Loria, Barbara E. Millen, Cathy A. Nonas, F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, June Stevens, Victor J. Stevens, Thomas A. Wadden, Bruce M. Wolfe, Susan Z. Yanovski


Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Dennis M. Styne, Silva A. Arslanian, Ellen L. Connor, Ismaa Sadaf Farooqi, M. Hassan Murad, Janet H. Silverstein, Jack A. Yanovski. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2017) 102 (3): 709-757.


Pediatric OMA guidelines:

Pediatric Obesity Algorithm®

Cuda S, Censani M, Joseph M, Browne N, O’Hara V. Pediatric Obesity Algorithm, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. 2018-2020.   www.pediatricobesityalgorithm.org.

Pharmacotherapy – Endocrine Society Pharmacologic Management of Obesity guidelines: Caroline M. Apovian Louis J. Aronne Daniel H. Bessesen Marie E. McDonnell M. Hassan Murad Uberto Pagotto Donna H. Ryan Christopher D. Still


Surgery – AACE/TOS/ASMBS Guidelines 2013: Jeffrey I. Mechanick, M.D., Adrienne Youdim, M.D., Daniel B. Jones, M.D., M.S.,W., Timothy Garvey, M.D., Daniel L. Hurley, M.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., Leslie J. Heinberg, Ph.D., Robert Kushner, M.D., Ted D. Adams, Ph.D., M.P.H., Scott Shikora, M.D., John B. Dixon, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., Stacy Brethauer, M.D.


The USPSTF Pediatric Guidelines (June 2017)



  • Primary Care: Evaluation and Management of Obesity, 1st edition (2022) – edited by Robert Kushner, Daniel Bessesen, Adam Gilden

  • Obesity Prevention and Treatment: A Practical Guide, 1st edition (2022) – edited by James Rippe and John Foreyt

  • The ASMBS Textbook of Bariatric Surgery, 2nd edition (2020) – edited by Ninh T. Nguyen, Stacy A. Brethauer, John M. Morton, Jaime Ponce, Raul J. Rosenthal

  • Handbook of Obesity Treatment, 2nd edition (2018) – edited by Thomas Wadden and George Bray

  • The SAGES Manual of Bariatric Surgery, 2nd edition (2018) – edited by Kevin Reavis, Allison Barrett, Matthew Kroh

  • Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment, 2nd edition (2018) – edited by Michael Freemark

  • Bariatric Surgery Complications: The Medical Practitioner’s Essential Guide, 1st edition (2017) – edited by Robin Blackstone

  • Bariatric Surgery Complications and Emergencies, 1st edition (2016) – edited by Daniel Herron

  • Handbook of Obesity, 4th edition (2014) – Volumes 1 and 2 – edited by George Bray and Claude Bouchard

  • Pediatric Obesity: Prevention, Intervention and Treatment Strategies for Primary Care, 2nd edition (2014) – Edited by Sandra Hassink

  • Managing Obesity: A Clinical Guide, 2nd edition (2009) – edited by Cathy Nonas and Gary Foster


AACE guidelines: Timothy Garvey, MD, FACE; Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU; Elise M. Brett, MD, FACE, CNSC, ECNU; Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE; Daniel L. Hurley, MD, FACE; Ania M. Jastreboff, MD, PhD; Karl Nadolsky, DO; Rachel Pessah-Pollack, MD; Raymond Plodkowski, MD; and Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines


Adult OMA Obesity guidelines:

Obesity Algorithm®

Bays HE, McCarthy W, Christensen S, Tondt J, Karjoo S, Davisson L, Ng J, Golden A, Burridge K, Conroy R, Wells S, Umashanker D, Afreen S, DeJesus R, Salter D, Shah N, Richardson L. Obesity Algorithm eBook, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. www.obesityalgorithm.org. 2020. https://obesitymedicine.org/obesity-algorithm/

Exercise – ACSM guidelines


Obesity Management – ACC/AHA/TOS guidelines: Michael D. Jensen, Donna H. Ryan, Caroline M. Apovian, Jamy D. Ard, Anthony G. Comuzzie, Karen A. Donato, Frank B. Hu, Van S. Hubbard, John M. Jakicic, Robert F. Kushner, Catherine M. Loria, Barbara E. Millen, Cathy A. Nonas, F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, June Stevens, Victor J. Stevens, Thomas A. Wadden, Bruce M. Wolfe, Susan Z. Yanovski


Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Dennis M. Styne, Silva A. Arslanian, Ellen L. Connor, Ismaa Sadaf Farooqi, M. Hassan Murad, Janet H. Silverstein, Jack A. Yanovski. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2017) 102 (3): 709-757.


Pediatric OMA guidelines:

Pediatric Obesity Algorithm®

Cuda S, Censani M, Joseph M, Browne N, O’Hara V. Pediatric Obesity Algorithm, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. 2018-2020.   



Pharmacotherapy – Endocrine Society Pharmacologic Management of Obesity guidelines: Caroline M. Apovian Louis J. Aronne Daniel H. Bessesen Marie E. McDonnell M. Hassan Murad Uberto Pagotto Donna H. Ryan Christopher D. Still


Surgery – AACE/TOS/ASMBS Guidelines 2013: Jeffrey I. Mechanick, M.D., Adrienne Youdim, M.D., Daniel B. Jones, M.D., M.S.,W., Timothy Garvey, M.D., Daniel L. Hurley, M.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., Leslie J. Heinberg, Ph.D., Robert Kushner, M.D., Ted D. Adams, Ph.D., M.P.H., Scott Shikora, M.D., John B. Dixon, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., Stacy Brethauer, M.D.


The USPSTF Pediatric Guidelines (June 2017)



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  • Wadden, TA, Stunkard, AJ. 2004. Handbook of Obesity Treatment. New York, NY. Guilford Press.


  • Arroyo K, Kini SU, Harvey JE, Herron DM. Surgical therapy for diabesity. Mt Sinai J Med. 2010;77(5):418-30.

  • Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;292(14):1724-37.

  • Harvey EJ, Arroyo K, Korner J, Inabnet WB. Hormone changes affecting energy homeostasis after metabolic surgery. Mt Sinai J Med. 2010;77(5):446-65.

  • Kim T. Nguyen and Judith Korner.  The Sum of Many Parts: Potential Mechanisms for Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis After Bariatric Surgery.  Curr Diab Rep. 2014 May; 14(5): 481.

  • Schauer PR. et al. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes — 5-Year Outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017;376:641-51.

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  • Dietary Interventions, Physical Activity, and Behavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Obesity Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group. The diabetes prevention program (DPP): Description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes care. 2002;25:2165–2171.

  • The Look AHEAD Research Group. The look AHEAD study: A description of the lifestyle intervention and the evidence supporting it. Obesity. 2006;14:737–752.

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  • Francesco Rubino, David M. Nathan, Robert H. Eckel, Philip R. Schauer, K. George M.M. Alberti et al. Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations. Diabetes Care 2016 Jun; 39(6): 861-877

  • Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, et al. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity. Cell Metab. 2016;S1550-4131(16)30053-5.

  • Philip R. Schauer, M.D., Deepak L. Bhatt, M.D., M.P.H., John P. Kirwan, Ph.D., Kathy Wolski, M.P.H. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes — 5-Year Outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017; 376:641-651February 16, 2017

  • Schmidt JB. et al. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycaemic control: a randomized controlled clinical trial. International Journal of Obesity (2016) 40, 281–290

  • Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1481-6.


  • Surgical Clinics of North America Volume 96, Issue 4, Pages 655-900 (August 2016).


  • Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2015;(219):1-8.

  • CDC Overweight and Obesity Facts: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html


  • Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. JAMA. 2007;297(9):969-977

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  • Kramer CK, Zinman B, Retnakaran R. Are metabolically healthy overweight and obesity benign conditions?: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(11):758-69.

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  • Fothergill E, Guo J, Howard L, et al. Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(8):1612-9.

  • Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(17):1597-604.


  • Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, et al. Pharmacological management of obesity: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(2):342-62.

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  • Blackstone, RP. 2017. Bariatric Surgery Complications: The Medical Practitioner’s Essential Guide 1st ed. Springer.

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Chronic Disease of Obesity

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8. Ravussin E, Ryan D: Response to “The need for people-first language in our Obesity journal”. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2015 23:918. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919920

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Fat Mass Disease

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Adiposopathy (Sick Fat Disease)

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97. Park J, Ahmadi SF, Streja E, et al.: Obesity paradox in end-stage kidney disease patients. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2014 56:415-425. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24438733

98. Panwar B, Hanks LJ, Tanner RM, et al.: Obesity, metabolic health, and the risk of end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2015 87:1216-1222. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517912

99. Niederdeppe J, Roh S, Shapiro MA: Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment. PLoS One 2015 10:e0117565. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25706743

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102. Thaler JP, Guyenet SJ, Dorfman MD, et al.: Hypothalamic inflammation: marker or mechanism of obesity pathogenesis? Diabetes 2013 62:2629-2634. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881189

103. Moore CJ, Cunningham SA: Social position, psychological stress, and obesity: a systematic review. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012 112:518-526. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22709702

104. Jackson SE, Kirschbaum C, Steptoe A: Hair cortisol and adiposity in a population-based sample of 2,527 men and women aged 54 to 87 years. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 25:539-544. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28229550

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115. Vanhees L, Geladas N, Hansen D, et al.: Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2012 19:1005-1033. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22637741

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Technologies for Weight Management

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353. Chou WY, Prestin A, Kunath S: Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis. Transl Behav Med 2014 4:314-323. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264470

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434. Tsujimoto T, Kajio H: Abdominal Obesity Is Associated With an Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Patients With HFpEF. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 70:2739-2749. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29191321

435. Packer M: Obesity-Associated Heart Failure as a Theoretical Target for Treatment With Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists. JAMA Cardiol 2018 3:883-887. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30046826

436. Parikh KS, Sharma K, Fiuzat M, et al.: Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Expert Panel Report: Current Controversies and Implications for Clinical Trials. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:619-632. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30071950

437. Savji N, Meijers WC, Bartz TM, et al.: The Association of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits With Incident HFpEF and HFrEF. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:701-709. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30007554

438. Obokata M, Reddy YNV, Pislaru SV, et al.: Evidence Supporting the Existence of a Distinct Obese Phenotype of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Circulation 2017 136:6-19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28381470

439. Oikonomou EK, Marwan M, Desai MY, et al.: Non-invasive detection of coronary inflammation using computed tomography and prediction of residual cardiovascular risk (the CRISP CT study): a post-hoc analysis of prospective outcome data. Lancet 2018 392:929-939. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30170852

440. Goeller M, Achenbach S, Marwan M, et al.: Epicardial adipose tissue density and volume are related to subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation and major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic subjects. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2018 12:67-73. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29233634

441. Wu Y, Zhang A, Hamilton DJ, et al.: Epicardial Fat in the Maintenance of Cardiovascular Health. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2017 13:20-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28413578

442. Pandey A, LaMonte M, Klein L, et al.: Relationship Between Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 69:1129-1142.

443. Packer M: Epicardial Adipose Tissue May Mediate Deleterious Effects of Obesity and Inflammation on the Myocardium. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:2360-2372. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29773163

444. Fitzgibbons TP, Czech MP: Epicardial and perivascular adipose tissues and their influence on cardiovascular disease: basic mechanisms and clinical associations. J Am Heart Assoc 2014 3:e000582. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595191

445. Javaheri S, Javaheri S, Javaheri A: Sleep apnea, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. Curr Heart Fail Rep 2013 10:315-320. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24097114

446. Blokhin IO, Lentz SR: Mechanisms of thrombosis in obesity. Curr Opin Hematol 2013 20:437-444.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23817170

447. Lefranc C, Friederich-Persson M, Palacios-Ramirez R, et al.: Mitochondrial oxidative stress in obesity: role of the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Endocrinol 2018 238:R143-R159. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29875164

448. Uchida Y, Uchida Y, Shimoyama E, et al.: Human pericoronary adipose tissue as storage and possible supply site for oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein in coronary artery. J Cardiol 2017 69:236-244. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209423

449. Salazar J, Luzardo E, Mejias JC, et al.: Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications. Cardiol Res Pract 2016 2016:1291537. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27213076

450. Cavender MA, Norhammar A, Birkeland KI, et al.: SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: An Analysis of CVD-REAL. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:2497-2506. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29852973

451. Kosiborod M, Lam CSP, Kohsaka S, et al.: Cardiovascular Events Associated With SGLT-2 Inhibitors Versus Other Glucose-Lowering Drugs: The CVD-REAL 2 Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:2628-2639. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29540325

452. Home P: Cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering medications: an update. Diabetologia 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30607467

453. Coulter AA, Rebello CJ, Greenway FL: Centrally Acting Agents for Obesity: Past, Present, and Future. Drugs 2018 78:1113-1132. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30014268

454. Bohula EA, Wiviott SD, McGuire DK, et al.: Cardiovascular Safety of Lorcaserin in Overweight or Obese Patients. N Engl J Med 2018 379:1107-1117. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30145941

455. Bohula EA, Scirica BM, Inzucchi SE, et al.: Effect of lorcaserin on prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients (CAMELLIA-TIMI 61): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2018 392:2269-2279. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30293771

456. Bays H, Perdomo C, Nikonova E, et al.: Lorcaserin and metabolic disease: weight-loss dependent and independent effects. Obes Sci Pract 2018 4:499-505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30574343

457. Scirica BM, Bohula EA, Dwyer JP, et al.: Lorcaserin and Renal Outcomes in Obese and Overweight Patients in the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 Trial. Circulation 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30586726

458. Gadde KM, Martin CK, Berthoud HR, et al.: Obesity: Pathophysiology and Management. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:69-84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29301630

459. Ritchey ME, Harding A, Hunter S, et al.: Cardiovascular Safety During and After Use of Phentermine and Topiramate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 104:513-522. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247575

460. Das SR, Everett BM, Birtcher KK, et al.: 2018 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on Novel Therapies for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 72:3200-3223. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30497881

461. Kramer CK, Ye C, Campbell S, et al.: Comparison of New Glucose-Lowering Drugs on Risk of Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:823-830. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30196071

462. Sanches Machado d’Almeida K, Ronchi Spillere S, Zuchinali P, et al.: Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2018 10: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29320401

463. Jorsal A, Kistorp C, Holmager P, et al.: Effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on left ventricular function in stable chronic heart failure patients with and without diabetes (LIVE)-a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2017 19:69-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27790809

464. Retwinski A, Kosmalski M, Crespo-Leiro M, et al.: The influence of metformin and the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on mortality and hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. Kardiol Pol 2018 76:1336-1343. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29862487

465. Weir DL, Abrahamowicz M, Beauchamp ME, et al.: Acute vs cumulative benefits of metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 20:2653-2660. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29934961

466. Margulies KB, Hernandez AF, Redfield MM, et al.: Effects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2016 316:500-508. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27483064

467. Margulies KB, McNulty SE, Cappola TP: Lack of Benefit for Liraglutide in Heart Failure-Reply. JAMA 2016 316:2429-2430. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959992

468. Vorsanger MH, Subramanyam P, Weintraub HS, et al.: Cardiovascular Effects of the New Weight Loss Agents. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016 68:849-859.

469. Bethel MA, Patel RA, Merrill P, et al.: Cardiovascular outcomes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 6:105-113.

470. Sharma A, Cooper LB, Fiuzat M, et al.: Antihyperglycemic Therapies to Treat Patients With Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:813-822. Additional references used in this section: [4][21][30][75][87][365][366]

Obesity and Elevated Blood Sugar

471. Bays H, Blonde L, Rosenson R: Adiposopathy: how do diet, exercise and weight loss drug therapies improve metabolic disease in overweight patients? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2006 4:871-895. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17173503

472. Bays H, Ballantyne C: Adiposopathy: why do adiposity and obesity cause metabolic disease? Future Lipidol. 2006 1:389-420.

473. Bays H, Abate N, Chandalia M: Adiposopathy: sick fat causes high blood sugar, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Future Cardiol 2005 1:39-59. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19804060

474. Bays H: Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2005 3:393-404. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889967

475. Yu JS, Cui W: Proliferation, survival and metabolism: the role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling in pluripotency and cell fate determination. Development 2016 143:3050-3060. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578176

476. Makki K, Froguel P, Wolowczuk I: Adipose tissue in obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance: cells, cytokines, and chemokines. ISRN Inflamm 2013 2013:139239. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24455420

477. DeMarco VG, Aroor AR, Sowers JR: The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014 10:364-376. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732974

478. Zoller V, Funcke JB, Keuper M, et al.: TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) inhibits human adipocyte differentiation via caspase-mediated downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors. Cell Death Dis 2016 7:e2412.

479. Fronczyk A, Moleda P, Safranow K, et al.: Increased concentration of C-reactive protein in obese patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and presence of diabetes but not with macrovascular and microvascular complications or glycemic control. Inflammation 2014 37:349-357. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24197824

480. D’Souza A M, Neumann UH, Glavas MM, et al.: The glucoregulatory actions of leptin. Mol Metab 2017 6:1052-1065. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28951828

481. Geer EB, Islam J, Buettner C: Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance: focus on adipose tissue function and lipid metabolism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2014 43:75-102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24582093

482. Fisette A, Lapointe M, Cianflone K: Obesity-inducing diet promotes acylation stimulating protein resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 437:403-407. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831465

483. Thorp AA, Schlaich MP: Relevance of Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. J Diabetes Res 2015 2015:341583. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26064978

484. Stimson RH, Walker BR: The role and regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2013 15:37-48.

485. Bays H, Mandarino L, DeFronzo RA: Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 89:463-478. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14764748

486. Veret J, Bellini L, Giussani P, et al.: Roles of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Pancreatic beta Cell Dysfunction Induced by Lipotoxicity. J Clin Med 2014 3:646-662. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237395

487. Larsen PJ, Tennagels N: On ceramides, other sphingolipids and impaired glucose homeostasis. Mol Metab 2014 3:252-260. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24749054

488. Taylor R, Al-Mrabeh A, Zhyzhneuskaya S, et al.: Remission of Human Type 2 Diabetes Requires Decrease in Liver and Pancreas Fat Content but Is Dependent upon Capacity for beta Cell Recovery. Cell Metab 2018 28:547-556 e543. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30078554

489. Cefalu WT, Kaul S, Gerstein HC, et al.: Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials in Type 2 Diabetes: Where Do We Go From Here? Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum. Diabetes Care 2018 41:14-31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29263194

490. Schnell O, Ryden L, Standl E, et al.: Updates on cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2017 16:128. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29020969

491. Andrikou E, Tsioufis C, Andrikou I, et al.: GLP-1 receptor agonists and cardiovascular outcome trials: An update. Hellenic J Cardiol 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30528435

492. Hernandez AF, Green JB, Janmohamed S, et al.: Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Harmony Outcomes): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2018 392:1519-1529. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30291013

493. Rosenstock J, Perkovic V, Johansen OE, et al.: Effect of Linagliptin vs Placebo on Major Cardiovascular Events in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk: The CARMELINA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30418475

494. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, et al.: Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30415602

495. Hsu PF, Sung SH, Cheng HM, et al.: Cardiovascular Benefits of Acarbose vs Sulfonylureas in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Metformin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 103:3611-3619. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30113697

496. Verma S, Poulter NR, Bhatt DL, et al.: Effects of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With or Without History of Myocardial Infarction or Stroke. Circulation 2018 138:2884-2894. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30566004

497. O’Brien MJ, Karam SL, Wallia A, et al.: Association of Second-line Antidiabetic Medications With Cardiovascular Events Among Insured Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Netw Open 2018 1:e186125.

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Obesity and High Blood Pressure

498. Landsberg L, Aronne LJ, Beilin LJ, et al.: Obesity-related hypertension: pathogenesis, cardiovascular risk, and treatment—a position paper of the The Obesity Society and The American Society of Hypertension. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013 21:8-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23401272

499. Kim DH, Kim C, Ding EL, et al.: Adiponectin levels and the risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertension 2013 62:27-32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23716587

500. Nguyen NQ, Debreceni TL, Burgstad CM, et al.: Effects of Posture and Meal Volume on Gastric Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Oral Glucose Tolerance, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Obes Surg 2015 25:1392-1400. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25502436

501. Kawarazaki W, Fujita T: The Role of Aldosterone in Obesity-Related Hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2016 29:415-423. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26927805

502. Lim K, Burke SL, Head GA: Obesity-related hypertension and the role of insulin and leptin in high-fat-fed rabbits. Hypertension 2013 61:628-634. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23339171

503. Trahair LG, Horowitz M, Jones KL: Postprandial hypotension: a systematic review. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2014 15:394-409. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630686

504. Rust P, Ekmekcioglu C: Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 956:61-84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27757935

505. DiNicolantonio JJ, Lucan SC: The wrong white crystals: not salt but sugar as aetiological in hypertension and cardiometabolic disease. Open Heart 2014 1:e000167.

506. Barton M, Baretella O, Meyer MR: Obesity and risk of vascular disease: importance of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. Br J Pharmacol 2012 165:591-602. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21557734

507. Buckley LF, Canada JM, Del Buono MG, et al.: Low NT-proBNP levels in overweight and obese patients do not rule out a diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. ESC Heart Fail 2018 5:372-378. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29345112

508. Engin A: Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 960:345-379. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28585207

509. Khalid U, Wruck LM, Quibrera PM, et al.: BNP and obesity in acute decompensated heart failure with preserved vs. reduced ejection fraction: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance Study. Int J Cardiol 2017 233:61-66. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28185703

510. Kistorp C, Bliddal H, Goetze JP, et al.: Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity. BMC Obes 2014 1:24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26217511 Additional references used in this section: [4][21][472][483]

Obesity and Dyslipidemia

511. Bays H, Kothari SN, Azagury DE, et al.: Lipids and bariatric procedures Part 2 of 2: scientific statement from the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the National Lipid Association (NLA), and Obesity Medicine Association (OMA). Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016 12:468-495. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27050404

512. Aguilar D, Fernandez ML: Hypercholesterolemia induces adipose dysfunction in conditions of obesity and nonobesity. Adv Nutr 2014 5:497-502. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469381

513. Collins JM, Neville MJ, Pinnick KE, et al.: De novo lipogenesis in the differentiating human adipocyte can provide all fatty acids necessary for maturation. J Lipid Res 2011 52:1683-1692. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21677304

514. Chung S, Parks JS: Dietary cholesterol effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Curr Opin Lipidol 2016 27:19-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655292

515. Christou GA, Kiortsis DN: Adiponectin and lipoprotein metabolism. Obes Rev 2013 14:939-949. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957239

516. Ebbert JO, Jensen MD: Fat depots, free fatty acids, and dyslipidemia. Nutrients 2013 5:498-508. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434905

517. Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC: Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients 2013 5:1218-1240. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23584084

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Obesity and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

518. Choo VL, Viguiliouk E, Blanco Mejia S, et al.: Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. BMJ 2018 363:k4644. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30463844

519. Jung UJ, Choi MS: Obesity and its metabolic complications: the role of adipokines and the relationship between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Mol Sci 2014 15:6184-6223. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733068

520. Calzadilla Bertot L, Adams LA: The Natural Course of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int J Mol Sci 2016 17

521. Kanda H, Tateya S, Tamori Y, et al.: MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity. J Clin Invest 2006 116:1494-1505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16691291

522. Duwaerts CC, Maher JJ: Mechanisms of Liver Injury in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Curr Hepatol Rep 2014 13:119-129. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045618

523. Saponaro C, Gaggini M, Carli F, et al.: The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis. Nutrients 2015 7:9453-9474. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580649

524. Barb D, Portillo-Sanchez P, Cusi K: Pharmacological management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism 2016 65:1183-1195. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301803

525. Lee DH: Imaging evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: focused on quantification. Clin Mol Hepatol 2017 23:290-301. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28994271

526. Idilman IS, Keskin O, Celik A, et al.: A comparison of liver fat content as determined by magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction and MRS versus liver histology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Acta Radiol 2016 57:271-278. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25855666

527. Leoni S, Tovoli F, Napoli L, et al.: Current guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review with comparative analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2018 24:3361-3373.

528. de Alwis NM, Anstee QM, Day CP: How to Diagnose Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Dig Dis 2016 34 Suppl 1:19-26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547937

529. Kneeman JM, Misdraji J, Corey KE: Secondary causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2012 5:199-207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22570680

530. Luukkonen PK, Sadevirta S, Zhou Y, et al.: Saturated Fat Is More Metabolically Harmful for the Human Liver Than Unsaturated Fat or Simple Sugars. Diabetes Care 2018 41:1732-1739. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29844096

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Obesity and Cancer

532. Spyrou N, Avgerinos KI, Mantzoros CS, et al.: Classic and Novel Adipocytokines at the Intersection of Obesity and Cancer: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies. Curr Obes Rep 2018 7:260-275. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30145771

533. Golemis EA, Scheet P, Beck TN, et al.: Molecular mechanisms of the preventable causes of cancer in the United States. Genes Dev 2018 32:868-902. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29945886

534. Druso JE, Fischbach C: Biophysical Properties of Extracellular Matrix: Linking Obesity and Cancer. Trends Cancer 2018 4:271-273. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29606310

535. Islami F, Goding Sauer A, Gapstur SM, et al.: Proportion of Cancer Cases Attributable to Excess Body Weight by US State, 2011-2015. JAMA Oncol 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30589925

536. Sung H, Siegel RL, Torre LA, et al.: Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden. CA Cancer J Clin 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30548482

537. Sung H, Siegel RL, Rosenberg PS, et al.: Emerging cancer trends among young adults in the USA: analysis of a populationbased cancer registry. Lancet Public Health 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30733056

538. Mackenzie H, Markar SR, Askari A, et al.: Obesity surgery and risk of cancer. Br J Surg 2018 105:1650-1657. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30003539

539. Seiler A, Chen MA, Brown RL, et al.: Obesity, Dietary Factors, Nutrition, and Breast Cancer Risk. Curr Breast Cancer Rep 2018 10:14-27. 540.Liou GY, Storz P: Reactive oxygen species in cancer. Free Radic Res 2010 44:479-496.

541. Salehi B, Martorell M, Arbiser JL, et al.: Antioxidants: Positive or Negative Actors? Biomolecules 2018 8: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30366441

542. Gorlach A, Dimova EY, Petry A, et al.: Reactive oxygen species, nutrition, hypoxia and diseases: Problems solved? Redox Biol 2015 6:372-385. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26339717

543. Davidson KT, Zhu Z, Balabanov D, et al.: Beyond Conventional Medicine - a Look at Blueberry, a Cancer-Fighting Superfruit. Pathol Oncol Res 2018 24:733-738.

544. Turati F, Rossi M, Pelucchi C, et al.: Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk: a review of southern European studies. Br J Nutr 2015 113 Suppl 2:S102-110.

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Investigational Anti-obesity Pharmacotherapy

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546. Saxena A, Sachin K: A Network Biology Approach for Assessing the Role of Pathologic Adipose Tissues in Insulin Resistance Using Meta-analysis of Microarray Datasets. Curr Genomics 2018 19:630-666.

547. Srivastava G, Apovian C: Future Pharmacotherapy for Obesity: New Anti-obesity Drugs on the Horizon. Curr Obes Rep 2018 7:147-161. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29504049

548. Xiong Y, Walker K, Min X, et al.: Long-acting MIC-1/GDF15 molecules to treat obesity: Evidence from mice to monkeys. Sci Transl Med 2017 9:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29046435

549. Pocai A: Action and therapeutic potential of oxyntomodulin. Mol Metab 2014 3:241-251. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24749050

550. Khatib MN, Gaidhane S, Gaidhane AM, et al.: Ghrelin O Acyl Transferase (GOAT) as a Novel Metabolic Regulatory Enzyme. J Clin Diagn Res 2015 9:Le01-05.

551. Zhang SR, Fan XM: Ghrelin-ghrelin O-acyltransferase system in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2015 21:3214-3222. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25805927

552. Chen J, Zhao H, Ma X, et al.: GLP-1/GLP-1R Signaling in Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation and Lipogenesis. Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 42:1165-1176. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28668964

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