Diretrizes e Referências Bibliográficas em

Medicina da Obesidade
 

OBESITY MEDICINE GUIDELINES

AACE guidelines: Timothy Garvey, MD, FACE; Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU; Elise M. Brett, MD, FACE, CNSC, ECNU; Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE; Daniel L. Hurley, MD, FACE; Ania M. Jastreboff, MD, PhD; Karl Nadolsky, DO; Rachel Pessah-Pollack, MD; Raymond Plodkowski, MD; and Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines

https://pro.aace.com/files/obesity/final-appendix.pdf

Adult OMA Obesity guidelines:

Obesity Algorithm®

Bays HE, McCarthy W, Christensen S, Tondt J, Karjoo S, Davisson L, Ng J, Golden A, Burridge K, Conroy R, Wells S, Umashanker D, Afreen S, DeJesus R, Salter D, Shah N, Richardson L. Obesity Algorithm eBook, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. www.obesityalgorithm.org. 2020. https://obesitymedicine.org/obesity-algorithm/

Exercise – ACSM guidelines

https://www.abom.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Quantity_and_Quality_of_Exercise_for_Developing.26-002.pdf

Obesity Management – ACC/AHA/TOS guidelines:Michael D. Jensen, Donna H. Ryan, Caroline M. Apovian, Jamy D. Ard, Anthony G. Comuzzie, Karen A. Donato, Frank B. Hu, Van S. Hubbard, John M. Jakicic, Robert F. Kushner, Catherine M. Loria, Barbara E. Millen, Cathy A. Nonas, F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, June Stevens, Victor J. Stevens, Thomas A. Wadden, Bruce M. Wolfe, Susan Z. Yanovski

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/11/11/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee

Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Dennis M. Styne, Silva A. Arslanian, Ellen L. Connor, Ismaa Sadaf Farooqi, M. Hassan Murad, Janet H. Silverstein, Jack A. Yanovski. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2017) 102 (3): 709-757.

https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2016-2573

Pediatric OMA guidelines:

Pediatric Obesity Algorithm®

Cuda S, Censani M, Joseph M, Browne N, O’Hara V. Pediatric Obesity Algorithm, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. 2018-2020.   www.pediatricobesityalgorithm.org.

Pharmacotherapy – Endocrine Society Pharmacologic Management of Obesity guidelines: Caroline M. Apovian Louis J. Aronne Daniel H. Bessesen Marie E. McDonnell M. Hassan Murad Uberto Pagotto Donna H. Ryan Christopher D. Still

https://www.abom.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Pharmacological-Management-of-Obesity-an-Endocrine-Society-Guideline.pdf

Surgery – AACE/TOS/ASMBS Guidelines 2013: Jeffrey I. Mechanick, M.D., Adrienne Youdim, M.D., Daniel B. Jones, M.D., M.S.,W., Timothy Garvey, M.D., Daniel L. Hurley, M.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., Leslie J. Heinberg, Ph.D., Robert Kushner, M.D., Ted D. Adams, Ph.D., M.P.H., Scott Shikora, M.D., John B. Dixon, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., Stacy Brethauer, M.D.

https://asmbs.org/wp/uploads/2014/05/AACE_TOS_ASMBS_Clinical_Practice_Guidlines_3.2013.pdf

The USPSTF Pediatric Guidelines (June 2017)

https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-screening1

REFERENCE HANDBOOKS AND TEXTBOOKS

  • Primary Care: Evaluation and Management of Obesity, 1st edition (2022) – edited by Robert Kushner, Daniel Bessesen, Adam Gilden

  • Obesity Prevention and Treatment: A Practical Guide, 1st edition (2022) – edited by James Rippe and John Foreyt

  • The ASMBS Textbook of Bariatric Surgery, 2nd edition (2020) – edited by Ninh T. Nguyen, Stacy A. Brethauer, John M. Morton, Jaime Ponce, Raul J. Rosenthal

  • Handbook of Obesity Treatment, 2nd edition (2018) – edited by Thomas Wadden and George Bray

  • The SAGES Manual of Bariatric Surgery, 2nd edition (2018) – edited by Kevin Reavis, Allison Barrett, Matthew Kroh

  • Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment, 2nd edition (2018) – edited by Michael Freemark

  • Bariatric Surgery Complications: The Medical Practitioner’s Essential Guide, 1st edition (2017) – edited by Robin Blackstone

  • Bariatric Surgery Complications and Emergencies, 1st edition (2016) – edited by Daniel Herron

  • Handbook of Obesity, 4th edition (2014) – Volumes 1 and 2 – edited by George Bray and Claude Bouchard

  • Pediatric Obesity: Prevention, Intervention and Treatment Strategies for Primary Care, 2nd edition (2014) – Edited by Sandra Hassink

  • Managing Obesity: A Clinical Guide, 2nd edition (2009) – edited by Cathy Nonas and Gary Foster

 

AACE guidelines: Timothy Garvey, MD, FACE; Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU; Elise M. Brett, MD, FACE, CNSC, ECNU; Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE; Daniel L. Hurley, MD, FACE; Ania M. Jastreboff, MD, PhD; Karl Nadolsky, DO; Rachel Pessah-Pollack, MD; Raymond Plodkowski, MD; and Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines
 

https://pro.aace.com/files/obesity/final-appendix.pdf


Adult OMA Obesity guidelines:
 

Obesity Algorithm®
 

Bays HE, McCarthy W, Christensen S, Tondt J, Karjoo S, Davisson L, Ng J, Golden A, Burridge K, Conroy R, Wells S, Umashanker D, Afreen S, DeJesus R, Salter D, Shah N, Richardson L. Obesity Algorithm eBook, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. www.obesityalgorithm.org. 2020. https://obesitymedicine.org/obesity-algorithm/
 

Exercise – ACSM guidelines
 

https://www.abom.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Quantity_and_Quality_of_Exercise_for_Developing.26-002.pdf
 

Obesity Management – ACC/AHA/TOS guidelines: Michael D. Jensen, Donna H. Ryan, Caroline M. Apovian, Jamy D. Ard, Anthony G. Comuzzie, Karen A. Donato, Frank B. Hu, Van S. Hubbard, John M. Jakicic, Robert F. Kushner, Catherine M. Loria, Barbara E. Millen, Cathy A. Nonas, F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, June Stevens, Victor J. Stevens, Thomas A. Wadden, Bruce M. Wolfe, Susan Z. Yanovski
 

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/11/11/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee
 

Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Dennis M. Styne, Silva A. Arslanian, Ellen L. Connor, Ismaa Sadaf Farooqi, M. Hassan Murad, Janet H. Silverstein, Jack A. Yanovski. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2017) 102 (3): 709-757.
 

https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2016-2573
 

Pediatric OMA guidelines:
 

Pediatric Obesity Algorithm®
 

Cuda S, Censani M, Joseph M, Browne N, O’Hara V. Pediatric Obesity Algorithm, presented by the Obesity Medicine Association. 2018-2020.   

www.pediatricobesityalgorithm.org.

 

Pharmacotherapy – Endocrine Society Pharmacologic Management of Obesity guidelines: Caroline M. Apovian Louis J. Aronne Daniel H. Bessesen Marie E. McDonnell M. Hassan Murad Uberto Pagotto Donna H. Ryan Christopher D. Still
 

https://www.abom.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Pharmacological-Management-of-Obesity-an-Endocrine-Society-Guideline.pdf
 

Surgery – AACE/TOS/ASMBS Guidelines 2013: Jeffrey I. Mechanick, M.D., Adrienne Youdim, M.D., Daniel B. Jones, M.D., M.S.,W., Timothy Garvey, M.D., Daniel L. Hurley, M.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., Leslie J. Heinberg, Ph.D., Robert Kushner, M.D., Ted D. Adams, Ph.D., M.P.H., Scott Shikora, M.D., John B. Dixon, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., Stacy Brethauer, M.D.
 

https://asmbs.org/wp/uploads/2014/05/AACE_TOS_ASMBS_Clinical_Practice_Guidlines_3.2013.pdf
 

The USPSTF Pediatric Guidelines (June 2017)
 

https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-screening1
 

APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH OBESITY
 

  • Bray, GA. 2003. Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and The Metabolic Syndrome, 3rd Edition. Handbooks in Health Care.

  • Daniels SR, Hassink SG; COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION.The Role of the Pediatrician in Primary Prevention of Obesity. Pediatrics. 2015 Jul;136(1):e275-92. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1558. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

  • Wadden, TA, Stunkard, AJ. 2004. Handbook of Obesity Treatment. New York, NY. Guilford Press.
     

BARIATRIC SURGERY
 

  • Arroyo K, Kini SU, Harvey JE, Herron DM. Surgical therapy for diabesity. Mt Sinai J Med. 2010;77(5):418-30.

  • Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;292(14):1724-37.

  • Harvey EJ, Arroyo K, Korner J, Inabnet WB. Hormone changes affecting energy homeostasis after metabolic surgery. Mt Sinai J Med. 2010;77(5):446-65.

  • Kim T. Nguyen and Judith Korner.  The Sum of Many Parts: Potential Mechanisms for Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis After Bariatric Surgery.  Curr Diab Rep. 2014 May; 14(5): 481.

  • Schauer PR. et al. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes — 5-Year Outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017;376:641-51.

  • Sogg S, Lauretti J, West-Smith L. Recommendations for the presurgical psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016;12:731-49.

  • Stefater  M. et al. All Bariatric Surgeries Are Not Created Equal: Insights From Mechanistic Comparisons. Endocrine Reviews, August 2012, 33(4) 595-622.

  • Strohmayer E, Via MA, Yanagisawa R. Metabolic management following bariatric surgery. Mt Sinai J Med. 2010;77(5):431-45.
     

BEHAVIORAL CHANGE              
 

  • Dietary Interventions, Physical Activity, and Behavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Obesity Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group. The diabetes prevention program (DPP): Description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes care. 2002;25:2165–2171.

  • The Look AHEAD Research Group. The look AHEAD study: A description of the lifestyle intervention and the evidence supporting it. Obesity. 2006;14:737–752.

  • Prochaska JO, et al. Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol 1994; 13(1):3946.

  • Radesky J, Christakis D, Hill D, Ameenuddin N, Reid Chassiakos YL, Cross C, Hutchinson J, Levine A, Boyd R, Mendelson R, Moreno M, Swanson WS. Media and Young Minds. Pediatrics. 2016 Nov;138(5).

  • Rollnick S, Butler CC, Kinnersley P, Gregory J, Mash B. Motivational Interviewing. BMJ 2010;340:12421245
     

BENEFITS OF WEIGHT LOSS
 

  • Francesco Rubino, David M. Nathan, Robert H. Eckel, Philip R. Schauer, K. George M.M. Alberti et al. Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations. Diabetes Care 2016 Jun; 39(6): 861-877

  • Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, et al. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity. Cell Metab. 2016;S1550-4131(16)30053-5.

  • Philip R. Schauer, M.D., Deepak L. Bhatt, M.D., M.P.H., John P. Kirwan, Ph.D., Kathy Wolski, M.P.H. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes — 5-Year Outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017; 376:641-651February 16, 2017

  • Schmidt JB. et al. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycaemic control: a randomized controlled clinical trial. International Journal of Obesity (2016) 40, 281–290

  • Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1481-6.
     

ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURES
 

  • Surgical Clinics of North America Volume 96, Issue 4, Pages 655-900 (August 2016).
     

EPIDEMIOLOGY
 

  • Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2015;(219):1-8.

  • CDC Overweight and Obesity Facts: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
     

NUTRITION
 

  • Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. JAMA. 2007;297(9):969-977

  • Iris Shai, R.D., Ph.D., Dan Schwarzfuchs, M.D., Yaakov Henkin, M.D., Danit R. Shahar, R.D., Ph.D., Shula Witkow, R.D, et al. Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:229-241July 17, 2008.

  • Ramón Estruch, M.D., Ph.D., Emilio Ros, M.D., Ph.D., Jordi Salas-Salvadó, M.D., Ph.D., Maria-Isabel Covas, D.Pharm., Ph.D., Dolores Corella, D.Pharm., Ph.D., Fernando Arós, M.D., Ph.D., Enrique Gómez-Gracia, M.D et al. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1279-1290April 4, 2013.
     

OBESITY-RELATED COMORBIDITIES
 

  • Kramer CK, Zinman B, Retnakaran R. Are metabolically healthy overweight and obesity benign conditions?: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(11):758-69.

  • Nguyen NT, Magno CP, Lane KT, Hinojosa MW, Lane JS. Association of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome with obesity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207(6):928-34.
     

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
 

  • Fothergill E, Guo J, Howard L, et al. Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(8):1612-9.

  • Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(17):1597-604.
     

PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF OBESITY
 

  • Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, et al. Pharmacological management of obesity: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(2):342-62.

  • Igel LI, Kumar RB, Saunders KH, Aronne LJ. Practical Use of Pharmacotherapy for Obesity. Gastroenterology. 2017; S0016-5085(17)30142-7.

  • Apovian, C, Aronne L, Powell, A, Clinical Management of Obesity. Professional Communications, Inc.; 1st edition (June 1, 2015)

  • Blackstone, RP. 2017. Bariatric Surgery Complications: The Medical Practitioner’s Essential Guide 1st ed. Springer.

  • Bray, G. & Bouchard, C. Handbook of Obesity, Fourth Edition, Two Volume set: Handbook of Obesity-Volume 2: Clinical Applications, Fourth Edition, 2014. CRC Press

  • Herron, DM. 2016. Bariatric Surgery Complications and Emergencies 1st ed. Springer.

  • Kushner R, Lawrence V, Kumar S. Practical Manual of Clinical Obesity, 2013. Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Mahan, K.L. & Escott-Stump, S.E., Krause’s Food and the Nutrition Care Process, 13th Edition, 2011. Saunders.

  • Nguyen, NT, Blackstone, RP. 2015. ASMBS Textbook of Bariatric Surgery, Volumes 1 and 2. Springer.

  • Shils, M.E., Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 11th Edition, 2012.Lippincott, Williams &Wilkins.

  • Steelman, G.M. & Westman, E.C., Obesity: Evaluation and Treatment Essentials, Second Edition, 2016. CRC Press.

  • Youdim, Adrienne et al. The Clinicians Guide to the Treatment of Obesity, 2015. Springer.

REFERÊNCIAS: OBESITY ALGORITHM®. © 2019 OBESITY MEDICINE ASSOCIATION;

1. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust 2011 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24983061

Chronic Disease of Obesity

2. Bray GA, Kim KK, Wilding JPH, et al.: Obesity: a chronic relapsing progressive disease process. A position statement of the World Obesity Federation. Obes Rev 2017 18:715-723. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489290

3. Jastreboff AM, Kotz CM, Kahan S, et al.: Obesity as a Disease: The Obesity Society 2018 Position Statement. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 27:7-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30569641

4. Bays H: Adiposopathy, “sick fat,” Ockham’s razor, and resolution of the obesity paradox. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2014 16:409. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24659222

5. Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, et al.: Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015-2016. NCHS Data Brief 2017 1-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29155689

6. Fryar CD, Kruszon-Moran D, Gu Q, et al.: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics Mean Body Weight, Height, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index Among Adults: United States, 1999–2000 Through 2015–2016. National Health Statistics Reports 2018 Number 122:1 - 16.

7. Puhl R, Peterson JL, Luedicke J: Motivating or stigmatizing? Public perceptions of weight-related language used by health providers. Int J Obes (Lond) 2013 37:612-619. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777543

8. Ravussin E, Ryan D: Response to “The need for people-first language in our Obesity journal”. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2015 23:918. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919920

9. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Health Information: Talking with patients about weight loss. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/medical/Pages/medical-care-for-patients-with-obesity.aspx (Accessed August 20, 2016).

10. American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgeons Standards Manual version 2.0. Resources for Optimal Care of the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Patient 2016 https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/quality%20programs/bariatric/mbsaqip%20standardsmanual.ashx

(Accessed September 10, 2016).

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29156178

12. Bays H, Scinta W: Adiposopathy and epigenetics: an introduction to obesity as a transgenerational disease. Curr Med Res Opin 2015 31:2059-2069. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331354

Genetics

13. Chung WK: An overview of mongenic and syndromic obesities in humans. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012 58:122-128. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21994130

14. Herbst KL: Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2012 33:155-172. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22301856

15. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). Familial Partial Lipodystrophy https://rarediseases.org/for-patients-andfamilies/information-resources/rare-disease-information/ Accessed December 3, 2017.

16. Melvin A, Adams C, Flanagan C, et al.: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in the Management of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Type 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 102:3616-3620. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28973478

17. Metreleptin (MYALEPT®) Prescribing Information http://www.myaleptpro.com/sites/default/files/myalept_pi_sept2015_final.pdf (Accessed November 26, 2018).

18. Youngson NA, Morris MJ: What obesity research tells us about epigenetic mechanisms. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2013 368:20110337. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166398

19. Curley JP, Mashoodh R, Champagne FA: Epigenetics and the origins of paternal effects. Horm Behav 2011 59:306-314. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620140

20. Bays HE: “Sick fat,” metabolic disease, and atherosclerosis. Am J Med 2009 122:S26-37.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110085

21. Bays HE: Adiposopathy is “sick fat” a cardiovascular disease? J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 57:2461-2473.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21679848

22. Bays HE: Adiposopathy, diabetes mellitus, and primary prevention of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease: treating “sick fat” through improving fat function with antidiabetes therapies. Am J Cardiol 2012 110:4B-12B. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23062567

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Obesity Classification

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24. Rahman M, Berenson AB: Accuracy of current body mass index obesity classification for white, black, and Hispanic reproductive-age women. Obstet Gynecol 2010 115:982-988. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20410772

25. Misra A, Shrivastava U: Obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians. Nutrients 2013 5:2708-2733. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23863826

26. Banack HR, Wactawski-Wende J, Hovey KM, et al.: Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women? Menopause 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29135897

27. Hsu WC, Araneta MR, Kanaya AM, et al.: BMI cut points to identify at-risk Asian Americans for type 2 diabetes screening. Diabetes Care 2015 38:150-158. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25538311

28. American Council on Exercise: What are the guidelines for percentage of body fat loss? http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy-livingarticle/60/112/what-are-the-guidelines-for-percentage-of-body-fat (Accessed August 20, 2016). 2009

29. Calculator.net Army Fat Calculator https://www.calculator.net/army-body-fat-calculator.html (Accessed November 26, 2018).

30. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al.: 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30423393

31. Bays H: Central obesity as a clinical marker of adiposopathy; increased visceral adiposity as a surrogate marker for global fat dysfunction. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2014 21:345-351. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106000

32. Carroll JF, Chiapa AL, Rodriquez M, et al.: Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008 16:600-607. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18239557

33. Wang Z, Ma J, Si D: Optimal cut-off values and population means of waist circumference in different populations. Nutr Res Rev 2010 23:191-199. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642876

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37. Imboden MT, Welch WA, Swartz AM, et al.: Reference standards for body fat measures using GE dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in Caucasian adults. PLoS One 2017 12:e0175110. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28388669

38. Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Stanforth PR, Bartholomew JB, et al.: DXA estimates of fat in abdominal, trunk and hip regions varies by ethnicity in men. Nutr Diabetes 2013 3:e64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507968

39. Grundy SM, Neeland IJ, Turer AT, et al.: Waist circumference as measure of abdominal fat compartments. J Obes 2013 2013:454285.

40. Camhi SM, Bray GA, Bouchard C, et al.: The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011 19:402-408.

Fat Mass Disease

41. Kushner RF, Blatner DJ: Risk assessment of the overweight and obese patient. J Am Diet Assoc 2005 105:S53-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867897

42. Kushner RF, Roth JL: Assessment of the obese patient. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2003 32:915-933.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14711068

43. Bays HE: Current and investigational antiobesity agents and obesity therapeutic treatment targets. Obes Res 2004 12:1197-1211. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15340100

44. Pearl RL, Wadden TA, Hopkins CM, et al.: Association between weight bias internalization and metabolic syndrome among treatment-seeking individuals with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 25:317-322. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28124502

45. Obesity Action Coalition. Weight Bias Guides. https://www.obesityaction.org/action-through-advocacy/weight-bias/weight-biasguides/ (Accessed January 5, 2019).

46. Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Yeazel MW, et al.: Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. Obes Rev 2015 16:319-326.

47. Shamsuzzaman AS, Gersh BJ, Somers VK: Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease. JAMA 2003 290:1906-1914. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14532320

48. Gileles-Hillel A, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D: Biological plausibility linking sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016 12:290-298. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939978

49. Nagappa M, Liao P, Wong J, et al.: Validation of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Different Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One 2015 10:e0143697. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658438

50. Weaver TE, Calik MW, Farabi SS, et al.: Innovative treatments for adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Nat Sci Sleep 2014 6:137-147. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25429246

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98. Panwar B, Hanks LJ, Tanner RM, et al.: Obesity, metabolic health, and the risk of end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2015 87:1216-1222. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517912

99. Niederdeppe J, Roh S, Shapiro MA: Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment. PLoS One 2015 10:e0117565. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25706743

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112. Beechy L, Galpern J, Petrone A, et al.: Assessment tools in obesity - psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition. Physiol Behav 2012 107:154-171. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22548766

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115. Vanhees L, Geladas N, Hansen D, et al.: Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2012 19:1005-1033. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22637741

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304. Williams AA, Wright KS: Engaging families through motivational interviewing. Pediatr Clin North Am 2014 61:907-921. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242705

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306. Miller ST, Oates VJ, Brooks MA, et al.: Preliminary efficacy of group medical nutrition therapy and motivational interviewing among obese African American women with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. J Obes 2014 2014:345941. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25243082

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309. Windham ME, Hastings ES, Anding R, et al.: “Teens Talk Healthy Weight”: the impact of a motivational digital video disc on parental knowledge of obesity-related diseases in an adolescent clinic. J Acad Nutr Diet 2014 114:1611-1618. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882205

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314. Miller NH: Motivational interviewing as a prelude to coaching in healthcare settings. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2010 25:247-251. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386250

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Behavioral Therapy

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324. Adam TC, Epel ES: Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav 2007 91:449-458. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17543357

325. Monteleone P, Piscitelli F, Scognamiglio P, et al.: Hedonic eating is associated with increased peripheral levels of ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol in healthy humans: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012 97:E917-924. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22442280

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327. Rikani AA, Choudhry Z, Choudhry AM, et al.: A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders. Ann Neurosci 2013 20:157-161. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206042

328. Brauhardt A, de Zwaan M, Hilbert A: The therapeutic process in psychological treatments for eating disorders: a systematic review. Int J Eat Disord 2014 47:565-584. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24796817

329. Reas DL, Grilo CM: Current and emerging drug treatments for binge eating disorder. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2014 19:99-142. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460483

330. Aigner M, Treasure J, Kaye W, et al.: World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of eating disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry 2011 12:400-443. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21961502

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335. Milano W, De Rosa M, Milano L, et al.: Night eating syndrome: an overview. J Pharm Pharmacol 2012 64:2-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22150667

336. Stunkard AJ, Allison KC, Geliebter A, et al.: Development of criteria for a diagnosis: lessons from the night eating syndrome. Compr Psychiatry 2009 50:391-399. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19683608

337. Gupta H: Barriers to and Facilitators of Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance in Adult UK People: A Thematic Analysis. Int J Prev Med 2014 5:1512-1520. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25709786

338. Peterson JA: Get moving! Physical activity counseling in primary care. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2007 19:349-357. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17680900

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340. Sainsbury A, Zhang L: Role of the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight and composition during energy deficit. Obes Rev 2012 13:234-257. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070225

341. Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL: Adaptive thermogenesis in humans. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010 34 Suppl 1:S47-55. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20935667

342. Maclean PS, Bergouignan A, Cornier MA, et al.: Biology’s response to dieting: the impetus for weight regain. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2011 301:R581-600. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21677272

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Technologies for Weight Management

352. Dobkin BH: Wearable motion sensors to continuously measure real-world physical activities. Curr Opin Neurol 2013 26:602-608. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24136126

353. Chou WY, Prestin A, Kunath S: Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis. Transl Behav Med 2014 4:314-323. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264470

354. Jakicic JM, Davis KK, Rogers RJ, et al.: Effect of Wearable Technology Combined With a Lifestyle Intervention on Long-term Weight Loss: The IDEA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2016 316:1161-1171. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654602

355.Cheatham SW, Stull KR, Fantigrassi M, et al.: The efficacy of wearable activity tracking technology as part of a weight loss program: a systematic review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2018 58:534-548.

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Medication

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Functional Foods, Supplements, and Over-the-counter Therapies

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Obesity and Metabolic Disease

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421. de Simone G, Mancusi C, Izzo R, et al.: Obesity and hypertensive heart disease: focus on body composition and sex differences. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2016 8:79. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27956942

422. Gu C, Younas H, Jun JC: Sleep apnea: An overlooked cause of lipotoxicity? Med Hypotheses 2017 108:161-165.

423. Pearson T, Wattis JA, King JR, et al.: The Effects of Insulin Resistance on Individual Tissues: An Application of a Mathematical Model of Metabolism in Humans. Bull Math Biol 2016 78:1189-1217. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306890

424. Sarr O, Strohm RJ, MacDonald TL, et al.: Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue Secretions from Extremely Obese Men and Women both Acutely Suppress Muscle Insulin Signaling. Int J Mol Sci 2017 18:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468326

425. Kitessa SM, Abeywardena MY: Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle: The Chase for the Culprit Goes from Total Intramuscular Fat to Lipid Intermediates, and Finally to Species of Lipid Intermediates. Nutrients 2016 8: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27483311

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Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

426. Riaz H, Khan MS, Siddiqi TJ, et al.: Association Between Obesity and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis of Mendelian Randomization Studies. JAMA Netw Open 2018 1:e183788.

427. Vilahur G, Ben-Aicha S, Badimon L: New insights into the role of adipose tissue in thrombosis. Cardiovasc Res 2017 113:1046-1054. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472252

428. Neeland IJ, Poirier P, Despres JP: Cardiovascular and Metabolic Heterogeneity of Obesity: Clinical Challenges and Implications for Management. Circulation 2018 137:1391-1406. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29581366

429. Ei Ei Khaing N, Shyong TE, Lee J, et al.: Epicardial and visceral adipose tissue in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis in a Chinese population. PLoS One 2018 13:e0196328.

430.Abazid RM, Kattea MO, Sayed S, et al.: Visceral adipose tissue influences on coronary artery calcification at young and middle-age groups using computed tomography angiography. Avicenna J Med 2015 5:83-88.

431. Csige I, Ujvarosy D, Szabo Z, et al.: The Impact of Obesity on the Cardiovascular System. J Diabetes Res 2018 2018:3407306. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30525052

432. Kaushik M, Reddy YM: Distinction of “fat around the heart”. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 58:1640; author reply 1640-1641. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21958896

433. Prenner SB, Mather PJ: Obesity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: A growing problem. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2018 28:322-327. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29305040

434. Tsujimoto T, Kajio H: Abdominal Obesity Is Associated With an Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Patients With HFpEF. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 70:2739-2749. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29191321

435. Packer M: Obesity-Associated Heart Failure as a Theoretical Target for Treatment With Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists. JAMA Cardiol 2018 3:883-887. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30046826

436. Parikh KS, Sharma K, Fiuzat M, et al.: Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Expert Panel Report: Current Controversies and Implications for Clinical Trials. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:619-632. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30071950

437. Savji N, Meijers WC, Bartz TM, et al.: The Association of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits With Incident HFpEF and HFrEF. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:701-709. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30007554

438. Obokata M, Reddy YNV, Pislaru SV, et al.: Evidence Supporting the Existence of a Distinct Obese Phenotype of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Circulation 2017 136:6-19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28381470

439. Oikonomou EK, Marwan M, Desai MY, et al.: Non-invasive detection of coronary inflammation using computed tomography and prediction of residual cardiovascular risk (the CRISP CT study): a post-hoc analysis of prospective outcome data. Lancet 2018 392:929-939. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30170852

440. Goeller M, Achenbach S, Marwan M, et al.: Epicardial adipose tissue density and volume are related to subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation and major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic subjects. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2018 12:67-73. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29233634

441. Wu Y, Zhang A, Hamilton DJ, et al.: Epicardial Fat in the Maintenance of Cardiovascular Health. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2017 13:20-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28413578

442. Pandey A, LaMonte M, Klein L, et al.: Relationship Between Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 69:1129-1142.

443. Packer M: Epicardial Adipose Tissue May Mediate Deleterious Effects of Obesity and Inflammation on the Myocardium. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:2360-2372. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29773163

444. Fitzgibbons TP, Czech MP: Epicardial and perivascular adipose tissues and their influence on cardiovascular disease: basic mechanisms and clinical associations. J Am Heart Assoc 2014 3:e000582. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595191

445. Javaheri S, Javaheri S, Javaheri A: Sleep apnea, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. Curr Heart Fail Rep 2013 10:315-320. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24097114

446. Blokhin IO, Lentz SR: Mechanisms of thrombosis in obesity. Curr Opin Hematol 2013 20:437-444.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23817170

447. Lefranc C, Friederich-Persson M, Palacios-Ramirez R, et al.: Mitochondrial oxidative stress in obesity: role of the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Endocrinol 2018 238:R143-R159. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29875164

448. Uchida Y, Uchida Y, Shimoyama E, et al.: Human pericoronary adipose tissue as storage and possible supply site for oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein in coronary artery. J Cardiol 2017 69:236-244. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209423

449. Salazar J, Luzardo E, Mejias JC, et al.: Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications. Cardiol Res Pract 2016 2016:1291537. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27213076

450. Cavender MA, Norhammar A, Birkeland KI, et al.: SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: An Analysis of CVD-REAL. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:2497-2506. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29852973

451. Kosiborod M, Lam CSP, Kohsaka S, et al.: Cardiovascular Events Associated With SGLT-2 Inhibitors Versus Other Glucose-Lowering Drugs: The CVD-REAL 2 Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:2628-2639. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29540325

452. Home P: Cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering medications: an update. Diabetologia 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30607467

453. Coulter AA, Rebello CJ, Greenway FL: Centrally Acting Agents for Obesity: Past, Present, and Future. Drugs 2018 78:1113-1132. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30014268

454. Bohula EA, Wiviott SD, McGuire DK, et al.: Cardiovascular Safety of Lorcaserin in Overweight or Obese Patients. N Engl J Med 2018 379:1107-1117. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30145941

455. Bohula EA, Scirica BM, Inzucchi SE, et al.: Effect of lorcaserin on prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients (CAMELLIA-TIMI 61): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2018 392:2269-2279. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30293771

456. Bays H, Perdomo C, Nikonova E, et al.: Lorcaserin and metabolic disease: weight-loss dependent and independent effects. Obes Sci Pract 2018 4:499-505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30574343

457. Scirica BM, Bohula EA, Dwyer JP, et al.: Lorcaserin and Renal Outcomes in Obese and Overweight Patients in the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 Trial. Circulation 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30586726

458. Gadde KM, Martin CK, Berthoud HR, et al.: Obesity: Pathophysiology and Management. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 71:69-84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29301630

459. Ritchey ME, Harding A, Hunter S, et al.: Cardiovascular Safety During and After Use of Phentermine and Topiramate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 104:513-522. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247575

460. Das SR, Everett BM, Birtcher KK, et al.: 2018 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on Novel Therapies for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 72:3200-3223. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30497881

461. Kramer CK, Ye C, Campbell S, et al.: Comparison of New Glucose-Lowering Drugs on Risk of Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:823-830. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30196071

462. Sanches Machado d’Almeida K, Ronchi Spillere S, Zuchinali P, et al.: Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2018 10: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29320401

463. Jorsal A, Kistorp C, Holmager P, et al.: Effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on left ventricular function in stable chronic heart failure patients with and without diabetes (LIVE)-a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2017 19:69-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27790809

464. Retwinski A, Kosmalski M, Crespo-Leiro M, et al.: The influence of metformin and the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on mortality and hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. Kardiol Pol 2018 76:1336-1343. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29862487

465. Weir DL, Abrahamowicz M, Beauchamp ME, et al.: Acute vs cumulative benefits of metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 20:2653-2660. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29934961

466. Margulies KB, Hernandez AF, Redfield MM, et al.: Effects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2016 316:500-508. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27483064

467. Margulies KB, McNulty SE, Cappola TP: Lack of Benefit for Liraglutide in Heart Failure-Reply. JAMA 2016 316:2429-2430. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959992

468. Vorsanger MH, Subramanyam P, Weintraub HS, et al.: Cardiovascular Effects of the New Weight Loss Agents. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016 68:849-859.

469. Bethel MA, Patel RA, Merrill P, et al.: Cardiovascular outcomes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 6:105-113.

470. Sharma A, Cooper LB, Fiuzat M, et al.: Antihyperglycemic Therapies to Treat Patients With Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus. JACC Heart Fail 2018 6:813-822. Additional references used in this section: [4][21][30][75][87][365][366]

Obesity and Elevated Blood Sugar

471. Bays H, Blonde L, Rosenson R: Adiposopathy: how do diet, exercise and weight loss drug therapies improve metabolic disease in overweight patients? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2006 4:871-895. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17173503

472. Bays H, Ballantyne C: Adiposopathy: why do adiposity and obesity cause metabolic disease? Future Lipidol. 2006 1:389-420.

473. Bays H, Abate N, Chandalia M: Adiposopathy: sick fat causes high blood sugar, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Future Cardiol 2005 1:39-59. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19804060

474. Bays H: Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2005 3:393-404. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889967

475. Yu JS, Cui W: Proliferation, survival and metabolism: the role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling in pluripotency and cell fate determination. Development 2016 143:3050-3060. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578176

476. Makki K, Froguel P, Wolowczuk I: Adipose tissue in obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance: cells, cytokines, and chemokines. ISRN Inflamm 2013 2013:139239. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24455420

477. DeMarco VG, Aroor AR, Sowers JR: The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014 10:364-376. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732974

478. Zoller V, Funcke JB, Keuper M, et al.: TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) inhibits human adipocyte differentiation via caspase-mediated downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors. Cell Death Dis 2016 7:e2412.

479. Fronczyk A, Moleda P, Safranow K, et al.: Increased concentration of C-reactive protein in obese patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and presence of diabetes but not with macrovascular and microvascular complications or glycemic control. Inflammation 2014 37:349-357. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24197824

480. D’Souza A M, Neumann UH, Glavas MM, et al.: The glucoregulatory actions of leptin. Mol Metab 2017 6:1052-1065. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28951828

481. Geer EB, Islam J, Buettner C: Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance: focus on adipose tissue function and lipid metabolism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2014 43:75-102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24582093

482. Fisette A, Lapointe M, Cianflone K: Obesity-inducing diet promotes acylation stimulating protein resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 437:403-407. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831465

483. Thorp AA, Schlaich MP: Relevance of Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. J Diabetes Res 2015 2015:341583. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26064978

484. Stimson RH, Walker BR: The role and regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2013 15:37-48.

485. Bays H, Mandarino L, DeFronzo RA: Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 89:463-478. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14764748

486. Veret J, Bellini L, Giussani P, et al.: Roles of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Pancreatic beta Cell Dysfunction Induced by Lipotoxicity. J Clin Med 2014 3:646-662. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237395

487. Larsen PJ, Tennagels N: On ceramides, other sphingolipids and impaired glucose homeostasis. Mol Metab 2014 3:252-260. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24749054

488. Taylor R, Al-Mrabeh A, Zhyzhneuskaya S, et al.: Remission of Human Type 2 Diabetes Requires Decrease in Liver and Pancreas Fat Content but Is Dependent upon Capacity for beta Cell Recovery. Cell Metab 2018 28:547-556 e543. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30078554

489. Cefalu WT, Kaul S, Gerstein HC, et al.: Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials in Type 2 Diabetes: Where Do We Go From Here? Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum. Diabetes Care 2018 41:14-31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29263194

490. Schnell O, Ryden L, Standl E, et al.: Updates on cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2017 16:128. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29020969

491. Andrikou E, Tsioufis C, Andrikou I, et al.: GLP-1 receptor agonists and cardiovascular outcome trials: An update. Hellenic J Cardiol 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30528435

492. Hernandez AF, Green JB, Janmohamed S, et al.: Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Harmony Outcomes): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2018 392:1519-1529. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30291013

493. Rosenstock J, Perkovic V, Johansen OE, et al.: Effect of Linagliptin vs Placebo on Major Cardiovascular Events in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk: The CARMELINA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30418475

494. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, et al.: Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30415602

495. Hsu PF, Sung SH, Cheng HM, et al.: Cardiovascular Benefits of Acarbose vs Sulfonylureas in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Metformin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 103:3611-3619. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30113697

496. Verma S, Poulter NR, Bhatt DL, et al.: Effects of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With or Without History of Myocardial Infarction or Stroke. Circulation 2018 138:2884-2894. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30566004

497. O’Brien MJ, Karam SL, Wallia A, et al.: Association of Second-line Antidiabetic Medications With Cardiovascular Events Among Insured Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Netw Open 2018 1:e186125.

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Obesity and High Blood Pressure

498. Landsberg L, Aronne LJ, Beilin LJ, et al.: Obesity-related hypertension: pathogenesis, cardiovascular risk, and treatment—a position paper of the The Obesity Society and The American Society of Hypertension. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013 21:8-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23401272

499. Kim DH, Kim C, Ding EL, et al.: Adiponectin levels and the risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertension 2013 62:27-32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23716587

500. Nguyen NQ, Debreceni TL, Burgstad CM, et al.: Effects of Posture and Meal Volume on Gastric Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Oral Glucose Tolerance, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Obes Surg 2015 25:1392-1400. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25502436

501. Kawarazaki W, Fujita T: The Role of Aldosterone in Obesity-Related Hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2016 29:415-423. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26927805

502. Lim K, Burke SL, Head GA: Obesity-related hypertension and the role of insulin and leptin in high-fat-fed rabbits. Hypertension 2013 61:628-634. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23339171

503. Trahair LG, Horowitz M, Jones KL: Postprandial hypotension: a systematic review. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2014 15:394-409. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630686

504. Rust P, Ekmekcioglu C: Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 956:61-84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27757935

505. DiNicolantonio JJ, Lucan SC: The wrong white crystals: not salt but sugar as aetiological in hypertension and cardiometabolic disease. Open Heart 2014 1:e000167.

506. Barton M, Baretella O, Meyer MR: Obesity and risk of vascular disease: importance of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. Br J Pharmacol 2012 165:591-602. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21557734

507. Buckley LF, Canada JM, Del Buono MG, et al.: Low NT-proBNP levels in overweight and obese patients do not rule out a diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. ESC Heart Fail 2018 5:372-378. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29345112

508. Engin A: Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 960:345-379. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28585207

509. Khalid U, Wruck LM, Quibrera PM, et al.: BNP and obesity in acute decompensated heart failure with preserved vs. reduced ejection fraction: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance Study. Int J Cardiol 2017 233:61-66. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28185703

510. Kistorp C, Bliddal H, Goetze JP, et al.: Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity. BMC Obes 2014 1:24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26217511 Additional references used in this section: [4][21][472][483]

Obesity and Dyslipidemia

511. Bays H, Kothari SN, Azagury DE, et al.: Lipids and bariatric procedures Part 2 of 2: scientific statement from the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the National Lipid Association (NLA), and Obesity Medicine Association (OMA). Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016 12:468-495. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27050404

512. Aguilar D, Fernandez ML: Hypercholesterolemia induces adipose dysfunction in conditions of obesity and nonobesity. Adv Nutr 2014 5:497-502. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469381

513. Collins JM, Neville MJ, Pinnick KE, et al.: De novo lipogenesis in the differentiating human adipocyte can provide all fatty acids necessary for maturation. J Lipid Res 2011 52:1683-1692. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21677304

514. Chung S, Parks JS: Dietary cholesterol effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Curr Opin Lipidol 2016 27:19-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655292

515. Christou GA, Kiortsis DN: Adiponectin and lipoprotein metabolism. Obes Rev 2013 14:939-949. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957239

516. Ebbert JO, Jensen MD: Fat depots, free fatty acids, and dyslipidemia. Nutrients 2013 5:498-508. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434905

517. Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC: Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients 2013 5:1218-1240. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23584084

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Obesity and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

518. Choo VL, Viguiliouk E, Blanco Mejia S, et al.: Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. BMJ 2018 363:k4644. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30463844

519. Jung UJ, Choi MS: Obesity and its metabolic complications: the role of adipokines and the relationship between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Mol Sci 2014 15:6184-6223. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733068

520. Calzadilla Bertot L, Adams LA: The Natural Course of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int J Mol Sci 2016 17

521. Kanda H, Tateya S, Tamori Y, et al.: MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity. J Clin Invest 2006 116:1494-1505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16691291

522. Duwaerts CC, Maher JJ: Mechanisms of Liver Injury in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Curr Hepatol Rep 2014 13:119-129. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045618

523. Saponaro C, Gaggini M, Carli F, et al.: The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis. Nutrients 2015 7:9453-9474. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580649

524. Barb D, Portillo-Sanchez P, Cusi K: Pharmacological management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism 2016 65:1183-1195. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301803

525. Lee DH: Imaging evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: focused on quantification. Clin Mol Hepatol 2017 23:290-301. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28994271

526. Idilman IS, Keskin O, Celik A, et al.: A comparison of liver fat content as determined by magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction and MRS versus liver histology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Acta Radiol 2016 57:271-278. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25855666

527. Leoni S, Tovoli F, Napoli L, et al.: Current guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review with comparative analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2018 24:3361-3373.

528. de Alwis NM, Anstee QM, Day CP: How to Diagnose Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Dig Dis 2016 34 Suppl 1:19-26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547937

529. Kneeman JM, Misdraji J, Corey KE: Secondary causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2012 5:199-207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22570680

530. Luukkonen PK, Sadevirta S, Zhou Y, et al.: Saturated Fat Is More Metabolically Harmful for the Human Liver Than Unsaturated Fat or Simple Sugars. Diabetes Care 2018 41:1732-1739. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29844096

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Obesity and Cancer

532. Spyrou N, Avgerinos KI, Mantzoros CS, et al.: Classic and Novel Adipocytokines at the Intersection of Obesity and Cancer: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies. Curr Obes Rep 2018 7:260-275. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30145771

533. Golemis EA, Scheet P, Beck TN, et al.: Molecular mechanisms of the preventable causes of cancer in the United States. Genes Dev 2018 32:868-902. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29945886

534. Druso JE, Fischbach C: Biophysical Properties of Extracellular Matrix: Linking Obesity and Cancer. Trends Cancer 2018 4:271-273. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29606310

535. Islami F, Goding Sauer A, Gapstur SM, et al.: Proportion of Cancer Cases Attributable to Excess Body Weight by US State, 2011-2015. JAMA Oncol 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30589925

536. Sung H, Siegel RL, Torre LA, et al.: Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden. CA Cancer J Clin 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30548482

537. Sung H, Siegel RL, Rosenberg PS, et al.: Emerging cancer trends among young adults in the USA: analysis of a populationbased cancer registry. Lancet Public Health 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30733056

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